Volcanic eruptions can lead to temporary climate cooling, if sufficiently large quantities of sulfur dioxide from the explosion reach high enough into the atmosphere (it has to be above the troposphere, the layer where weather basically happens).
Here’s a quick list of notable volcanic eruptions that’ve happened over time:
- An eruption in late 535 or early 536, which caused the volcanic winter of 536
- 1808 mystery eruption, most likely in the southwestern Pacific somewhere
- April 1815 eruption of Mount Tambora, causing the Year Without a Summer
- 1883 eruption of Krakatoa
And just recently, there was the 2022 volcanic eruption in Tonga, which seems to have pretty devastating to Tonga.