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Turkic languages

The Turkic languages are now thought to form one of the world’s primary language families, although they are also part of the Altaic sprachbund. There are at least 35 Turkic languages with at least 200 million speakers between them, 40% of which are speakers of Turkish.

Characteristic features of the Turkic family include agglutination, vowel harmony and the lack of grammatical gender, noun classes or articles. They all use SOV word order.

Extant languages within the Turkic family include:

  • Oghuz
    • West Oghuz
      • Turkish (Turkey)
      • Azerbaijani (Azerbaijan)
      • Gagauz (Moldova)
    • East Oghuz
      • Turkmen (Turkmenistan)
      • Khorasani Turkic (Iran)
      • Salar (China)
    • South Oghuz
      • Qashqai (Iran)
  • Khalaj/Arghu (Iran)
  • Kipchak
    • Western
      • Kumyk, Karachay-Balkar, Crimean Tatar…
    • Northern
      • Tatar, Bashkir
    • Eastern
      • Kazakh
      • Kyrgyz
      • Karakalpak, Siberian Tatar, Nogay
  • Karluk
    • Western
      • Uzbek
    • Eastern
      • Uyghur
      • Taranchi, Aini, Ili Turki
  • Siberian
    • Northern
      • Sakha/Yakut
      • Dolgan
    • Southern
      • Sayan: Dukhan, Tuvan, Tofa
      • Yenisei: Khakas, Fuyü Gïrgïz, Shor, Western Yugur
      • Chulym
      • Altai
  • Oghur
    • Chuvash