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Spanish

Spanish (also known as Castilian) is the most widely spoken of the Rom­ance languages, with an estimated 483 million native speakers in 2019, according to the Instituto Cervantes, and at least 75 million second-language speakers. It is an official language of 20 countries.

The main dialect groups of Spanish are:

  • Peninsular Spanish
    • Castilian Spanish
    • Andalusian Spanish
  • Mexican Spanish
  • Central American Spanish
  • Caribbean Spanish
  • Andean Spanish and Pacific Spanish
    • Colombian Spanish
    • Peruvian Spanish
    • Bolivian Spanish
  • Chilean Spanish
  • Rioplatense Spanish

Historically, and perhaps extremely marginally to this day, there was also Philippine Spanish.

There are a number of other schisms within the Spanish-speaking world that don’t align so neatly with these boundaries:

  • Voseo, tuteo, ustedeo
  • S-aspiration in Spanish (common in southern Spain, the Caribbean, the Cono Sur, and other parts of coastal South America)
  • Yeísmo and lleísmo (and variations in the pronunciation of the <ll> digraph, whether merged or not with <y>)

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