Kazakh is the state language of Kazakhstan (co-official with Russian). It is one of the Turkic languages; its closest significant relative is Kyrgyz. It is estimated to have 22 million speakers, primarily in Kazakhstan but also in border regions of neighbouring countries.
Kazakh was written in the Arabic alphabet until 1929, when the Soviet authorities replaced that with the Latin alphabet, which they then replaced again with the Cyrillic alphabet in 1940. Former Kazakh leader Nursultan Nazarbayev announced in 2017 that Kazakhstan was going to move back to a Latin-based alphabet, completing the transition by 2025. As of 2018, Kazakh is written in both Latin and Cyrillic alphabets in Kazakhstan, in the Cyrillic alphabet in Mongolia, and in the same Arabic-derived alphabet that is used to write Uyghur in China.