Istriot is a Romance language spoken by about 400 people, predominantly in two small villages in Croatia, Rovinj and Vodnjan. For a long time its exact lineage was unknown, but in 2017 the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History (which researches linguistic archaeology) classified it as a member of the Dalmatian Romance subfamily, which had hitherto been thought to have gone extinct.

In its status as a long-lost survivor of a formerly larger and more prominent subfamily with only a few hundred remaining speakers, Istriot is in a similar position to the Greek language Tsakonian.