Extremaduran is an Ibero-Romance language spoken in the Spanish autonomous community of Extremadura along with adjoining areas of the province of Salamanca. It’s estimated to have about 200,000 speakers. Broadly speaking there are three separate varieties of it, the northernmost being seen as “true” Extremaduran, and the southern two seen as mixed varieties with Spanish (and, fundamentally, as dialects of Spanish).

Features of Extremaduran include:

  • pronunciation of word-final -e and -o as [i] and [u] (and this is reflected in its spelling)
  • kept word-final -e from Latin after -d- (like Portuguese but unlike Spanish)
  • frequent loss of intervocalic d
  • post-vocalic /s/, /θ/ and /ks/ frequently aspirated
  • where Latin word-initial [f] evolved into [h], this [h] continues to be pronounced in Extremaduran and is not usually silent like in Spanish
  • infinitives end in [l], not [r]
  • relative to Spanish, there are some other “swaps” between [l] and [r]
  • while z is always pronounced /θ/ in modern Castilian Spanish, z is pronounced /ð/ in Extremaduran where the z corresponds to a voiced consonant in other Iberian languages that didn’t undergo a “devoice all sibilants” change.
  • you put an article before a possessive
  • retains remnants of a vocative case, which is formed by changing the word-final [i] or [u] (where it exists) to [e] or [o]