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Aymara

Aymara is an indigenous language spoken by about 1.7 million people in western Bolivia, southern Peru and to a much lesser extent in far northern Chile. It shares a number of features with its neighbour Quechua, including a near-identical phonology and grammatical similarities, but it’s thought that these are areal features stemming from prolonged linguistic contact, rather than evidence of a relationship.

Like Quechua, Aymara is an agglutinating language with an SOV word order. It has a multitude of suffixes which can be attached to words to express various shades of meaning, including (for nouns) kinship, size, possession, the plural, and noun case and (for verbs) location, direction, aspect, person/tense (these two are fused into the same suffix), number and mood (including evidentiality, like in Quechua).

Another feature that Aymara shares with Quechua is its conception of time: namely, that the future is behind us (where we can’t see it), and that the past is in front (where we can). This affects its word choice: for example, days in the future are described in Aymara as qhipa uru “back days”.